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線性電源適配器的結構與特點!

  開關電源不同于線性茄子視頻APP:電源適配器,前者調整管工作在通、斷狀態,后者調整管工作在線性狀態。電源適配器通過控制調整管的通、斷時間實現穩壓。電源適配器的優點是體積小、重量輕、功耗小、穩壓范圍寬,效率可高達80%~90%。調整管功率損耗小,散熱器也隨之減小。英規電源適配器工作頻率在幾十千赫茲甚至幾百千赫茲,濾波電感、電容元件可用較小的容量,允許的環境溫度也可以大大提高,廣泛應用在各種電子設備中。本章主要介紹電源適配器的基本構成、分類及工作原理,讓讀者對電源適配器有一個初步的認識。

線性電源適配器的結構與特點!

  穩壓電源適配器的比較

  電(dian)(dian)(dian)子(zi)設(she)備(bei)離不開電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)適(shi)(shi)配(pei)(pei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)。電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)適(shi)(shi)配(pei)(pei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)供給電(dian)(dian)(dian)子(zi)設(she)備(bei)所需(xu)要的(de)能(neng)量。電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)適(shi)(shi)配(pei)(pei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)性能(neng)、質量直接(jie)影響著電(dian)(dian)(dian)子(zi)設(she)備(bei)的(de)安全(quan)可靠運(yun)行,故此對電(dian)(dian)(dian)子(zi)設(she)備(bei)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)適(shi)(shi)配(pei)(pei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)性能(neng)、質量的(de)要求也越來越高。現(xian)有的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)適(shi)(shi)配(pei)(pei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)主要有兩(liang)大類:串聯線性穩(wen)壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)適(shi)(shi)配(pei)(pei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(簡(jian)稱線性電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)適(shi)(shi)配(pei)(pei)器(qi)(qi)(qi))和開關穩(wen)壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)適(shi)(shi)配(pei)(pei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)(簡(jian)稱電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)適(shi)(shi)配(pei)(pei)器(qi)(qi)(qi))。這兩(liang)類電(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)適(shi)(shi)配(pei)(pei)器(qi)(qi)(qi)各具(ju)特色(se)而(er)被(bei)廣泛應用。

  線性電源適配器的結構與特點

  線性電(dian)源適配器通常都是由(you)電(dian)網所提(ti)供的交(jiao)流電(dian),經(jing)過變壓(ya)、整流、濾波(bo)和穩壓(ya)環(huan)節而得到。其各個部分電(dian)路的作用如下:

  ①電(dian)(dian)源(yuan)適配器變壓(ya)器——將220V電(dian)(dian)網電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)轉換(huan)為整流(liu)電(dian)(dian)路(lu)所需要(yao)的交流(liu)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)值,而少部分電(dian)(dian)路(lu)采用(yong)電(dian)(dian)容降壓(ya),如遙控電(dian)(dian)風扇電(dian)(dian)路(lu)。

  ②整(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)路——將交流(liu)電(dian)(dian)壓轉換為脈動直流(liu)電(dian)(dian)壓。常用的整(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)路有半(ban)波整(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)路、全波整(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)路和橋式整(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)(zheng)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)路。

  ③濾波(bo)(bo)(bo)電(dian)(dian)路(lu)——將脈動直流電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)轉換成較(jiao)為(wei)平滑(hua)的直流電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)。線性(xing)電(dian)(dian)源適(shi)配器中常用的濾波(bo)(bo)(bo)電(dian)(dian)路(lu)有電(dian)(dian)感濾波(bo)(bo)(bo)、電(dian)(dian)容(rong)濾波(bo)(bo)(bo)和阻容(rong)濾波(bo)(bo)(bo),其(qi)中最(zui)常用的是電(dian)(dian)容(rong)濾波(bo)(bo)(bo)。

  ④穩壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)——將直(zhi)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)源適(shi)配(pei)器的(de)(de)(de)輸出電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)穩定,基(ji)本不(bu)受電(dian)(dian)網電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)或負(fu)載的(de)(de)(de)影響。在線性電(dian)(dian)源適(shi)配(pei)器中常用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)穩壓(ya)電(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)有(you)(you)二極(ji)管穩壓(ya)、串聯穩壓(ya)。其中,串聯穩壓(ya)有(you)(you)現成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)集成(cheng)電(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu),如固定電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)輸出的(de)(de)(de)集成(cheng)電(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)有(you)(you)LM78××,LM79××等,可(ke)調電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)輸出的(de)(de)(de)集成(cheng)電(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)有(you)(you)LM317和LM337等。

  4個功能模塊的線性穩壓電源適配器

  線性(xing)電源適配器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)優點是穩(wen)定性(xing)好(hao)、瞬態(tai)(tai)響應速度快、可靠性(xing)高、輸出電壓精(jing)度高和輸出紋波電壓小;缺點是工作(zuo)頻(pin)率(lv)低,所采用的(de)(de)工頻(pin)變(bian)壓器(qi)(qi)、濾(lv)波器(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)體積和重量都較大。調整管(guan)工作(zuo)在(zai)線性(xing)狀態(tai)(tai),功耗大、效率(lv)低,需要(yao)加裝散熱器(qi)(qi)。

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